A fairy tale: supercondoctors, Andrew bound states and quantized conductivity

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Superconductors. Where are they actually used real life? Examples are actually pretty cool. A floating wheelless trian, a means to steer speedy protons in large hardron colider and if you have been lucky one you might have seen a levitating superconductor on top of a magnet.

But why does superconductors have theese supper properties? To answer that let me ivite to a place. A very special and a very cold place. In this place electrons and holes hold each others hands. But that is not what normally happens. Thus cool things happen when electron from normal metal tries to enter the superconductor.

The doorman of the superconductor says to electron that wants to enter the supper place "you need to hold hands with another friend from superconductor to enter". So you do kick your friends girlfriend to free his hands and to enter the superconductor. And that is what electron does. But the hole soon reaches the another doorman to get back in the super place so she kicks out an electron and so the history repeats itslef which has certian frequencies.

But it turns out that doorman is actually a kind person and most electrons can get into superconductor without kicking out the partner of his friend. So only some holes and electrons with certain frequencies remains in the normal metal as prisoners.

It turns out that as physicists we are able to say what are the rules doorman will enforce and which electrons would remain prisoners in a normal metal. And we are able to change doorman by changing parameters of superconductors, but as we change them we actually see prisoners to escape. That is how we know that they were there in the first place!

The prisoners can also escape and new ones come in, if we push them by voltage. Where easiness of pushing which we call a conductivity. Prisoners however know that easier way out is by making friends with prisoners of the same frequency. Then they are able to win a doorman easier and we do see that as a sharp decrease of conductivity.

So to wrap up my research is about understanding doormens so the could be adjusted in a way prisoners could form a friends and to see if such jump of conductivity could be seen in the experiment. And that would add another phenomena which we observe regarding to superconductors. Perhaps that turns out usefull to enslave prisoners to do some quantum computation. Who knows… Isn't that cool?

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